30、候鸟迁徙

候鸟迁徙,奥秘在哪?

What is the secret of birds migration ?

小时侯,每到夏末秋初季节,总会看到家乡的蓝天上飞过一群群大雁,正象小学课本上写的,“秋天来了,天气凉了,一群大雁往南飞,一会儿排成人字,一会儿排成一字。”

As a young child, I used to see flocks of wild geese fly in the blue sky in my homeland in the late summer and early autumn. Just as described in the textbook of primary school, “Autumn is coming and it is getting cooler. A flock of wild geese is flying southward, sometimes in the formation of the fork and sometimes in a line.”

今年雨季和旱季交接之时,由于津巴布韦油料短缺,我正在一个加油站排长队等加油,突然,天空中几声杂嘈声吸引了我的注意力,我透过车窗望去,只见不远的一棵大树上栖息了十几只象乌鸦的鸟,扑腾着翅膀,嘴里“嘎——嘎——嘎——”地叫嚷着,我觉得好奇,也由于闲得无聊,就专心注意它们,心想着这些家伙们可能在开会,研究某项工程的实施方案,没想到的是,随着它们的叫声,从四面八方飞来了更多的同类鸟,不到半个多小时,集聚了近千只,突然,他们纷纷飞离大树,在天空中开始盘旋、盘旋,并不断盘旋升高,我纳闷,难道它们通过这种盘旋飞行方式在搞PARTY?或者在选拔飞翔姿势最优美的“国际小姐”?

One day at the turn of the rainy and the dry season this year, I was queuing at a service station in Zimbabwe, where petro was in short supply. Suddenly some noises in the sky caught my attention. I looked out of the car window and spotted a dozen crow-like birds perched on a large tree not very far. They flapped their wings and quacked and cawed. Out of curiosity and boredom, I began to watch them, figuring that they must be holding a meeting and discussing the implementation of a certain project. Unexpectedly, however, their callings attracted more and more birds of the same species from all directions. In less than half an hour,nearly a thousand birds had gathered. Suddenly they flew away from the big tree and hovered and rose higher and higher in the sky. I wondered whether they were holding a party in this manner of hovering. Or were they selecting “Miss International” with the most elegant flight?

我钻出车,站在路边的草地上目不转睛地瞅着,瞅着它们盘旋得越来越高,越来越高,也变得越来越小,越来越小,我想,它们难道在比赛飞高?

I came out of the car and stood on the lawn beside the road, watching them. They were hovering higher and higher in the sky until they looked smaller and smaller. I wondered, “Are they competing for flying the highest?”

出乎意料的是,飞得最高的那些鸟突然向西北方向似乎沿着一条直线飞去,其余的鸟仍在盘旋,但当到达同样高度时,也同样沿着那条直线飞去,就好象它们乘上了一列客车,沿着固定的铁路线驶去。

Unexpectedly, the birds that flew the highest suddenly flew northwest along a straight line. The others were still circling, but they also flew along the same straight line when they reached the same height, as if they had boarded a train and rode away along the fixed railway.

我想啊想,终于悟出,这些鸟是候鸟,它们起初在树上叫嚷,是在招呼同伴一起向远方出发,后来它们盘旋着飞翔,是为了提升高度,当它们飞到一定的高度,就碰上了一股气流,借助气流,它们可以比较轻松地飞向远方。

I finally came to realize after a hard thought that those must be migratory birds. At the beginning they clamored on the tree to hail the flock to fly together to a distant place. Later they flew by hovering in order to increase the altitude. When they reached a certain height, they met an air current ; it helped them to fly to the distance place more easily.

啊!候鸟真聪明!

Oh, how clever the migratory birds are!

回家后,我翻阅了一些有关候鸟的资料,发现了更令人惊奇的事。比如,北极燕鸥,它们在北极圈筑巢,到夏末秋初,就飞向南极,来年再飞回北极,每年行程35200公里。

After returning home, I checked up some documents about migratory birds and discovered more surprising facts. For example, arctic terns build nests in the Arctic Circle. They fly to the South Pole at the turn of summer and autumn. They fly back to the North Pole in the next year. Every year they travel for 35200 kilometers.

有一种莺,叫Blackpoll Warbler,身体很小,体重只有20多克,秋季来临前从美国阿拉斯加州飞到加拿大东海岸或新英格兰,在那儿大吃特吃,增加脂肪和体力,然后待寒冷一到,就开始了遥远的飞行历程,它们先向非洲飞,飞越大西洋,然后攀上一股气流,再折向南美洲巴西地带,全程3840多公里,飞行高度6000多米,连续飞行近4天4夜。

There is an oriole called Blackpoll Warbler, small in size and weighs only 20-odd grams. Before autumn comes, it flies from Alaska, America to the east coast of Canada or New England, where it feasts on all the dainty food to increase its fat and strength. Then when it is turning cold, it begins a long journey of flight, first toward Africa, over the Atlantic Ocean, then after taking over an air current it turns to Brazil of South America. The whole journey is 3840 kilometers at an altitude of more than 6000 meters. The flight lasts four days and four nights.

欧洲的一种白鹳,飞行12800公里到南非过冬。新西兰的长尾杜鹃飞行6400公里到太平洋岛屿过冬。英国曼岛的海鸥从威尔士飞向巴西,每日飞行700多公里,要连续飞行16天。大雁飞越喜马拉雅山的飞行高度为9000米。

The white storks in Europe fly 12,800 kilometers to spend the winter in South Africa. The long-tail cuckoos in New Zealand fly 6,400 kilometers to spend the winter in the Pacific islands. Seagulls in England’s Isle of Mann fly from Wales to Brazil at over 700 kilometers a day for 16 consecutive days. The wild geese fly over the Himalayas Mountains at an altitude of 9,000 meters.

更让人不可思议的是,一般布谷鸟的父辈先行离开,小布谷鸟稍后几天再起程, 小布谷鸟是在没有父母陪同和带领的情况下第一次向陌生的地方迁徙,且能准确无误地飞到目的地与父母团聚。与此相反,小欧椋鸟在父母辈之前先动身上路,也全凭自己识途。

What is more incredible is that generally the older generations of cuckoos start their journey earlier. Smaller cuckoos usually start their migration a few days later. Unaccompanied by their parents, small cuckoos make their first flight to a strange place and can fly to their destination inerrably and unite with their parents. On the contrary, young starlings set off earlier than their parents and reach their destination all by themselves.

太神奇了!太不可思议了!

Marvelous! Incredible!

我想,它们如何知道寒冷的气候即将来临?又如何知道哪个日子适合飞行?又如何知道天空几千米的高度有一股气流?又怎么知道这股气流要把它们带到自己想要去的地方?又怎么知道遥远的地方正是春暖花开,食物丰盛的时候?是什么力量迫使它们如此长途跋涉,远涉重洋?又是怎样准确无误地往返两地的?在飞行中是如何辨别方向的?在没有父母的陪同和带领下是如何找到远方的栖息地的?

I wonder how they know that the cold weather is coming. How do they know which day is suitable for flight? How do they know that there was an air current at an altitude of thousands meters? How do they know that this air current would carry them to their desired place? How do they know that that remote place is now a time of spring and flowers with sufficient food? What power had propelled them to embark upon such an epic journey across oceans? How do they travel round trip without going astray? How do they identify directions while flying? How do they find their habitat without accompanied and guided by their parents?

我寻找科学家们的解释,发现主要有以下四种答案。

I searched for scientists’ explanations and found the following four major answers.

候鸟靠体内的生物钟似的感觉器官,意识到寒冷即将到来和什么时候适宜起飞,在天空中飞行时计算太阳的位置, 并根据日月星辰来不断调整自身与太阳或星辰的角度来确定自己的飞行方向和路线。

Something like a biological clock inside the migratory bird can sense the upcoming cold and the appropriate time to take off, and can calculate the position of the sun while flying in the sky and determine its direction and route of flying by continuously adjusting the angle between itself and the sun or stars with the help of the sun, the moon, and the stars.

候鸟是天生的气象学家,能依据气温、光照、风向、降水等气象条件确定在栖息地生活的时间长短以及迁徙的时间,还能选择晴朗无雨的日子起飞,在飞行时能根据风向和气压的变化与波动调整飞行姿势,并借助上升气流自由滑翔以节省体力。

An inherent meteorologist, migratory birds can determine the duration of life at the habitat and the time of migration according to such meteorological conditions as temperature, lighting, wind direction, and rainfall. They can choose a sunny day to begin their flight, adjust their flying manner according to the changes and fluctuations of wind directions and barometric pressures, and make use of the ascending air current for gliding to save their energy.

候鸟对地磁波的变化十分敏感,所以能依据地磁波来辨别方向,且能根据自己掌握的地磁信息来决定迁徙的时间和栖息地。

Extremely sensitive to geomagnetic waves, migratory birds can identify their directions according to geomagnetic waves and can decide the time of migration and habitat according to the geomagnetic information known to them.

鸟类在千万年的进化中,由于季节气候的变化,逐渐发现了地球上气候变化的规律,通过一代一代的经验积累,逐渐形成了一种固定模式,并将其信息遗传给了下一代。

Through millions of years of evolution, birds have gradually realized the rules governing the seasonal changes of climates and have formed a fixed pattern through generations of accumulation of experience and passed on the genetic information to each succeeding generation.

以上四种解释似乎好象都有一定的道理,但只要深入分析,会发现它们都是异想天开、无稽之谈。

All the four explanations above seem reasonable, but a deeper analysis may discover that they are whimsical and fantastic talk.

按照解释1的说法,好象候鸟能根据太阳的位置计算自己的位置,测定方位,经而得出飞行方向和路线。

According to the first explanation, it seems that migratory birds can calculate their own positions, identify their direction, and derive the direction and route of flight according to the position of the sun.

那么,天空几千米高度的气流也是候鸟计算出来的?哇,候鸟比爱因斯坦聪明多了,一个大脑只有小拇指头大小的脑袋能在不用仪器、不用测量的情况下能把几千米高的天空中的气流流向计算出来,还能在不用指南针、经纬仪、罗盘、计算器的情况下一面飞行、一面计算出方位,太神奇卓异了。这种解释太神话离谱了。

Then, how about the air current at an altitude of thousands meters? Migratory birds calculate it as well? Wow, migratory birds are far more intelligent than Einstein. A brain the size of a little finger can calculate the direction of the air current at an altitude of thousands meters in the sky without any instruments and measurements. It is too whimsical that birds can calculate the direction during the flight without the use of compasses, theodolites, boxes and needles, and calculators. This is rather absurd.

按照解释2的说法,候鸟就是天生的气象学家,能根据气象条件选择晴朗无雨的日子起飞,这比全世界气象局所有科学家和工程技术人员聪明得多得多去了,问题是,假如气候反常,候鸟所在地区若连续阴天或下雨,那么,它们只好错过天空中的气流,眼巴巴地等着寒流的到来,无可奈何地等死了。

According to the second explanation, migratory birds are born meteorologists, who can take off on a sunny day by choosing different climatic conditions. Thus they are far brighter than all the scientists and engineers in the meteorological bureaus in the world. The problem is, in abnormal weather, when the area of migratory birds is inflicted with consecutive days of cloudy or rainy weather, the birds would have no choice but to miss the air current in the sky and wait for the arrival of the cold current. And what awaits them will certainly be death.

燕子每年春天飞回时,总能准确无误地飞到它前一年所筑的巢,据说,美国有个小城镇的燕子,总是在第二年的3月29日拂晓飞回此地。对此,我们又当作何解释?

When swallows return from migration every spring, they can always return accurately to the nests they built the year before. It is said that the swallows in a small town in America always return at the dawn of March 29 in the following year. How shall we explain this?

解释3的观点有点神秘,候鸟能依据地磁波来辨别方向,且能根据“掌握”的地磁信息来决定迁徙的时间和栖息地。不知候鸟们能否根据地磁波获悉几千米高空中的气流?又怎么能根据地磁波飞向去年呆过的地方,而不飞向其它的地方?

The third explanation is a little mythical. Migratory birds can identify the direction through geomagnetic waves and can decide the time of migration and habitat according to the geomagnetic information known to them. Are we sure that migratory birds can get to know the existence of air current at an altitude of thousands meters as per the geomagnetic waves? How can they fly to the place where they stayed the year before instead of other places simply with the help of geomagnetic waves?

解释4是典型的进化论观点,似乎天衣无缝,无可挑剔。

The fourth explanation is a typical theory of evolution and seems flawless.

我们从上一节小鸡破蛋壳知道,地球上第一只母鸡下的第一个蛋孵出的第一只小鸡在没有前一辈任何遗传信息和破蛋壳诀窍的情况下就能破壳而出,就证明进化论在这一点上是站不住脚的。那么,在候鸟的身上就能站得住脚吗?

As we have known from the chick’s breaking of egg shell described in the above section, the theory of evolution has been proved untenable in this aspect by the fact that the first chick hatched from the first egg laid by the first hen on the earth could break the shell without the inheritance of any genetic information and shell-breaking skills. Then is the theory tenable when comes to migratory birds?

科学家们根据放射性同位素测定法,认为:地球的年龄为46亿年,动物出现的时间为18亿年, 无脊椎动物为4.38亿年,鱼类约为3.8亿年,两栖动物为2.9亿年,爬行动物为2.45亿年,恐龙灭绝时间为1.35亿年,哺乳动物为6500万年,人类为160万年。

Based on the radioactive isotope determination method, scientists believed: The earth is 4.6 billions years old, animals appeared about 1.8 billion years ago, invertebrates about 4.38 billions years ago, fish about 3.80 billions years ago, amphibians about 2.9 billions years ago, and reptiles about 2.45 billions years ago, dinosaurs died out about 1.35 billions years ago, mammals appeared around 65 million years ago, and man appeared about 1.6 million years ago.

我们先不要怀疑放射形同位素测定法有没有问题,假定这种方法是准确的,那么,鸟类的出现至少也有几亿年了,若它们能聪明到把辨别方位、选择有利栖息地、从北极飞到南极的本事、利用天空气流飞翔、准确寻找到前辈生存的地方等信息完整地遗传给下一代,为什么几亿年的时光中不进化成更高级的动物,而要让人类抢占先机,到头来它们连人类的气枪和给它们撒下的网都躲不过?难道它们不愿意继续进化?或者进化的中途突然“卡壳”了?

First let’s not question the method of radioactive isotope measurement, and suppose the method is accurate. Then birds must have lived on earth for a few billion years. If the birds are clever enough to pass on to the next generation the information that enable them to identify the directions, choose the favorable habitats, fly from the North Pole to the South Pole, take advantage of the air current for flight in the sky, and accurately find the place where their former generations have stayed, then why haven’t they evolved into even more advanced animals in the period of a few billion years but are overtaken by humans who have rendered them inescapable from their air guns and the nets cast over them? Are they unwilling to go on with the evolution? Or are they suddenly stuck in the middle of evolution?

如果我们不相信上帝,只有胡乱瞎猜了,到底是先有蛋还是先有鸡的问题只好再争论它几万年了。

If we don’t believe in the Greatest Creator, we can only think randomly . The question of whether egg has appeared before the chick or the chick has appeared before egg will remain a mystery for another ten thousands of years.

我对候鸟迁徙的解释是,大自然中的一切,都有它们确定的目的和生存方式,不能相互取代其他物种的特性, 否则,一切都会灭绝,老虎既能占山为王,又能在天空飞翔;老鼠既会挖洞,又会在树上搭巢;羚羊既能以吃草为生,又能以吃其它动物的肉为生;狗既能生崽,又能下蛋;苹果树既能结苹果,又能结西瓜;。。。。。

Well, I would say migration of migratory birds is that everything in nature has their definite purposes and means of subsistence and that they each has features irreplaceable by other species. Otherwise, all will die out. What will happen if a tiger can both reign supreme in the mountain and soar in the sky? What if a mouse can dig holes and build nests on the tree? What if antelopes live on both grass and other animals? What if dogs can bear puppies and lay eggs? What if apple trees can produce both apples and watermelons? …

哇塞!太神奇了!

Wow! It’s really amazing !

候鸟能迁徙,答案只有一个——本能。就象小蜜蜂能够营造出109度28分的钝角、70度32分的锐角菱形一样的本能。

The answer for migratory birds’ migration is—instinct, just like bees that build honeycombs with a rhombus bottom consisting of 109.28 degrees obtuse angles and 70.32 degrees acute angles.

什么是本能?

What is instinct?

发布者:Jena Wang

I am Jena from China. I was a resident living in Chinese Largest Ecovillage —New Oasis for Life Community. I like ecovillages life mode. I am also interested in spiritual articles. Here I just share the Greatest Creator's love to me and my personal daily life. Hope you can enjoy my blog, thank you for reading.

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