20、条件反射

生命的保护机制——条件反射

The protection mechanism of life—conditioned reflex

什么是条件反射?

What is conditioned reflex?

记得那是1980年秋雨绵绵的一天,我正站在张家口地质技校教室内透过紧闭的窗户向外张望,突然一个名叫程洪福的四川同学从窗外恶作剧地向我吐来一口口水,我下意识地倒退了一步,双眼同时在瞬间合闭,我这一连串的动作惹得程洪福同学哈哈大笑,“班长,你的胆子太小了!窗户关着,我能吐到你脸上吗?”他笑着说。

It was a rainy autumn day in 1980. I was looking out of the closed window of a classroom in the Geological Technical School of Zhangjiakou. Suddenly a classmate called Cheng Hongfu from Sichuan, mischievously spitted at me from outside the window. Subconsciously I stepped backward, closing both eyes instantly. This chain of reactions triggered the burst of laughter of Cheng Hongfu, who said jestingly, “Monitor, what a coward you are! The window is closed. How can I spit on your face?”

我说:“我没有意识到窗户是闭着的,你再来一次,我肯定不反应。”我移到窗跟前,心里想着窗户是闭的,他吐不到我身上,任他把血吐出来,我也不理睬。

I said, “I did not realize that the window was closed. Do it one more time, and I will not react.” I moved closer to the window, thinking that since the window was closed and he could not reach me, I would remain calm even if he spitted blood to me.

“准备好啊!”话音未落,一口口水又向我吐来。

“Are you ready?”, before he had finished speaking, he had spitted to me.

“哈哈哈,班长你又闭眼睛了。”

“Haw-haw, monitor, you closed your eyes again.”

我的眼睛确实在那一刹那闭上了,后来又试了几次,眼睛就是不听指挥,每次口水吐来,眼睛就不由自主地眨巴一下。

My eyes indeed closed at that moment. Later I tried a few times more. Still my eyes would not listen to my command. Every time he spitted, I involuntarily winked my eyes.

后来学生理学和心理学时才知道,这种不由自主的生理反应就叫条件反射。

Later at the classes of physiology and psychology, I came to know that this involuntary physiological reaction is called conditioned reflex.

巴甫洛夫为此还进行过一次对狗的实验。每次给狗喂食物时伴以一定的铃声,过了一段时间,当食物还未拿到狗的面前,只是铃声响时,狗的口水就流了出来。这是为什么呢?因为对狗而言,铃声已成了一种进食的信号,已转化为一种条件刺激,狗的心理和生理对这个刺激进行了及时反应,这就是条件反射。

Pavlov even conducted an experiment on dog. The feeding of dogs was always accompanied by the ringing of bells. After some time the dogs’ mouths watered when they heard the bells, even before the food was brought in front of them. Why did this happen? It is because the ringing of bells has become a signal for food for dogs and a conditioned stimulus. The dogs’ prompt physiological and psychological reaction to this stimulus is called conditioned reflex.

《三国演义》“煮酒论英雄”章节中曹操给刘备讲了这么一个故事,曹操说:“刚才我看到园中梅树枝头青青的梅子,突然想起去年征讨张锈时,路上缺水,将士长途跋涉,口干舌燥,难以支持。我当时心生一计,用马鞭指着远处大声说:‘前面有梅林!’将士们听了,想起那些极酸的青果,嘴里就生出了口水,便不觉得渴了。”

In the chapter “Drinking Wine and Rating the Heroes” of the novel Romances of Three Kingdoms, Cao Cao related a story to Liu Bei, “The green plums on the branch I saw just now in the garden reminds me of last year’s fight against Zhang Xiu. We were running short of water through the long march then. The army could not put up with the thirst. Suddenly an idea came to me. ‘There is a plum grove ahead’, I cried and pointed with my riding whip. Having heard this and thinking of the sour green fruits, their mouths watered and they did not feel thirsty any more.”

曹操将士们一听到梅子就口舌生津,就是条件反射的结果。

Because of the conditioned reflex, the troops of Cao Cao secreted saliva when hearing plums.

条件反射的例子举不胜举。用手或枝条动一动正在爬行的毛毛虫,毛毛虫就立刻蜷曲成一个圆圈;地震前动物们的异常行为;含羞草受到触击是叶子的卷曲;夜深人静时突然的声响令人的心跳;看见蛇时人肌肉的紧缩;微物进入鼻孔时的打喷嚏;看黄色录象时男性阴茎的勃起,女性阴道内流出润滑液;想起仇人时肌肉紧张,脸发烧;紧张害怕时嘴唇发抖,身体哆嗦;遇到突然攻击时自然的反抗;莫名其妙的眼跳、耳热、心慌、肌肉抖动,等等,等等都是条件反射的结果。

There are endless examples of conditioned reflex. Poke at the crawling caterpillar with your hand or a stick, and it will immediately curl up into a circle. The abnormal behaviors of animals prior to an earthquake; Mimosa’s curling of leaves when touched; the palpitation of heart induced by a sudden sound at a quiet night; the contraction of muscles at the sight of a snake; the sneezes caused by the entrance of specks; the erection of penis and the secretion of lubricating mucus in the vagina when watching pornographic videos; the tightening of muscles and the flush of the face at the thought of one’s enemy; the trembling of the mouth and the shivering of the body in times of fear and tension; the spontaneous resistance when encountered sudden attack; inexplicable twitching of the eyelids, flush of ears, palpitation, and twittering of muscles—all these are results of conditioned reflex.

为什么动植物都会条件反射?无论我们从心理学的角度解释也好,还是从生理结构上解释也罢,除了后天习惯形成的条件反射外,与生具来的本能的条件反射绝对不是动植物自己给自己创造上去的。

Why is there conditioned reflex in animals and plants? Whether we make explanations in the psychological perspective or the physiological angle, apart from the conditioned reflex acquired as second nature, the innate instinctive conditioned reflex can in no way be created by the plants and animals themselves.

条件反射的作用主要是生命对自我本能的一种保护,是一种下意识的随即快速反应。

The function of conditioned reflex is mainly life’s instinctive protection of itself and a subconscious instant reaction.

这是谁设计的?谁给生命加上去的?难道不是上帝吗?!

Who has designed this? Who but the Greatest Creator?

发布者:Jena Wang

I am Jena from China. I was a resident living in Chinese Largest Ecovillage —New Oasis for Life Community. I like ecovillages life mode. I am also interested in spiritual articles. Here I just share the Greatest Creator's love to me and my personal daily life. Hope you can enjoy my blog, thank you for reading.

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